generate_post_date_output

This filter returns the HTML that displays your post date along with your blog posts.

You can use this filter to completely overwrite the HTML given, or even add to it.

For example, if you wanted to add a clock icon before your date, you could do this:

Add Icon to Date

add_filter( 'generate_post_date_output','tu_add_to_post_date' );
function tu_add_to_post_date( $output ) {
    return '<i class="fa fa-clock-o" aria-hidden="true"></i> ' . $output;
}

Remove Link from Date

add_filter( 'generate_post_date_output','tu_remove_date_link', 10, 2 );
function tu_remove_date_link( $output, $time_string ) {
	printf( '<span class="posted-on">%s</span>',
		$time_string
	);
}

As you can see, this filter is very powerful and gives you full control over your post dates.